One of four types of Cywydd, a Welsh metrical form originating in the 14th century, and one of three predominant Welsh metrical forms, the other two being the Awdl, and the Englyn. The other three forms of Cywydd, as listed by Einion Offeiriad around 1320, are Cywydd Deuair Birion, Cywydd Deuair Fryion, and Cywydd Llosgyrnog.
- quatrain (four line stanza) of seven syllable lines
- a stanza form
- Lines 2 and 4 rhyme
- Lines 1 and 3 cross-rhyme int the 3rd, fourth or fifth syllable of lines 2 and four
- The middle line rhyme in lines 1 and 3 function as a caesura in the line
- The mid-line rhymes can be various forms of half-rhyme, such as consonance or assonance. The main rhyme should be perfect
- The thing to remember about Welsh poetry is that the sonic aspect is central, to facilitate remembering it, which was the central function of the bard-remembering potentially hundreds or more of poems
- Here’s a possible scheme:
x x x x x x a
x x a x x x b
x x x x x x c
x x x x c x b
http://www.thepoetsgarret.com/celtic2.html#An awdl was originally a poem of indeterminate length with a single end rhyme throughout, in a single meter. In the 12th century, The Poets of the Princes treated this iteration of the awdl as a poem in its own right, but by that time it was becoming more common for it to consist as one part of a larger... More
Koch, J. T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif. (ABC-CLIO): Cop.
Turco, L. (2012). The book of forms a handbook of poetics, including odd and invented forms. Hanover (New Hampshire): University Press of New England.